February 20, 2015 - 09:24 PM PST
1-Butanoln-Butanol occurs naturally as a minor product of the fermentation of sugars and other carbohydrates, and is present in many foods and beverages. It is also a permitted artificial flavorant in the United States, used in butter, cream, fruit, rum, whiskey, ice cream and ices, candy, baked goods and cordials. It is also used in a wide range of consumer products.
1-PropanolPropanol, technically known as 1-Propanol, is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH. This colorless liquid is also known as propan-1-ol, 1-propyl alcohol,n-propyl alcohol, and n-propanol. It is an isomer of isopropanol (2-propanol, isopropyl alcohol). It is formed naturally in small amounts during many fermentation processes and used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical industry mainly for resins and cellulose esters.
2-ButanoneButanone, also known as methyl ethyl ketone or MEK, is an organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2CH3. This colorless liquid ketone has a sharp, sweet odor reminiscent of butterscotch and acetone. It is produced industrially on a large scale, and also occurs in trace amounts in nature. It is soluble in water and is commonly used as an industrial solvent
2-Propanol (Isopropanol, Isopropyl alcohol)Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name 2-propanol) is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C3H8O or C3H7OH or CH3CHOHCH3. It is a colorless, flammablechemical compound with a strong odor. It is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol, where the alcohol carbon atom is attached to two other carbon atoms sometimes shown as (CH3)2CHOH. It is a structural isomer of propanol. Isopropyl alcohol is denatured for certain uses
4-Methyl-2-pentanoneMethyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2C(O)CH3. This colourless liquid, a ketone, is widely used as a solvent.
AnisoleAnisole, or methoxybenzene, is an organic compound with the formula CH3OC6H5. It is a colorless liquid with a smell reminiscent of anise seed, and in fact many of its derivatives are found in natural and artificial fragrances. The compound is mainly made synthetically and is a precursor to other synthetic compounds.
EthanolCommonly referred to simply as alcohol or spirits, ethanol /ˈɛθənɒl/ is also called ethyl alcohol, and drinking alcohol. It is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts. It is a neurotoxic psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs used by humans. It can cause alcohol intoxication when consumed in sufficient quantity. Ethanol is used as a solvent, an antiseptic, a fuel and the active fluid in modern (post-mercury)thermometers (since it has a low freezing point) . It is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a strong chemical odor. Its structural formula CH
Ethyl acetateEthyl acetate (systematically, ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula CH3-COO-CH2-CH3. This colorless liquid has a characteristic sweet smell (similar to pear drops) and is used in glues, nail polish removers, decaffeinating tea and coffee, and cigarettes (see list of additives in cigarettes). Ethyl acetate is the ester of ethanol and acetic acid; it is manufactured on a large scale for use as a solvent. The combined annual production in 1985 of Japan, North America, and Europe was about 400,000 tons. In 2004, an estimated 1.3M tons were produced worldwide
Isobutyl acetateThe chemical compound isobutyl acetate, also known as 2-methylpropyl ethanoate (IUPAC name) or β-methylpropyl acetate, is a common solvent. It is produced from the esterification of isobutanol with acetic acid. It is used as a solvent for lacquer and nitrocellulose. Like many esters it has a fruity or floral smell at low concentrations and occurs naturally in raspberries, pears and other plants. At higher concentrations the odor can be unpleasant and may cause symptoms of central nervous system depression such as nausea, dizziness and headache.
IsopropylbenzeneCumene is the common name for isopropylbenzene, an organic compound that is based on an aromatic hydrocarbon with an aliphatic substitution. It is a constituent ofcrude oil and refined fuels. It is a flammable colorless liquid that has a boiling point of 152 °C. Nearly all the cumene that is produced as a pure compound on an industrial scale is converted to cumene hydroperoxide, which is an intermediate in the synthesis of other industrially important chemicals, primarily phenol and acetone.
n-Heptanen-Heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16. When used as a test fuel component in anti-knock test engines, a 100% heptane fuel is the zero point of the octane rating scale (the 100 point is a 100% iso-octane). Octane number equates to the anti-knock qualities of a comparison mixture of heptane and isooctane which is expressed as the percentage of isooctane in heptane and is listed on pumps for gasoline dispensed in the United States and internationally.
Propyl acetatePropyl acetate, also known as propyl ethanoate, is a chemical compound used as a solvent. This clear, colorless liquid is known by its characteristic odor of pears. Due to this fact, it is commonly used in fragrances and as a flavor additive. It is formed by the esterification of acetic acid and 1-propanol, often via Fischer–Speier esterification.
1-Pentanol1-Pentanol, (or n-pentanol, pentan-1-ol), is an alcohol with five carbon atoms and the molecular formula C5H12O. 1-Pentanol is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant aroma. There are 8 alcohols with this molecular formula (see amyl alcohol). The ester formed from butyric acid and 1-pentanol, pentyl butyrate, smells like apricot. Theester formed from acetic acid and 1-pentanol, amyl acetate (pentyl acetate), smells like banana. Pentanol can be prepared by fractional distillation of fusel oil. To reduce the use of fossil fuels, research is underway to discover cost-effective methods of utilizing fermentation to produce Bio-Pentanol. Pentanol can be used as a solvent for coating CDs and DVDs. Another use is a replacement for gasoline.
2-Butanol2-Butanol, or sec-butanol, is an organic compound with formula CH3CH(OH)CH2CH3. This secondary alcohol is a flammable, colorless liquid that is soluble in 3 parts water and completely miscible with polar organic solvents such as ethers and other alcohols. It is produced on a large scale, primarily as a precursor to the industrial solvent methyl ethyl ketone. 2-Butanol is chiral and thus can be obtained as either of two stereoisomers designated as (R)-(−)-2-butanol and (S)-(+)-2-butanol. It is normally found as an equal mixture of the two stereoisomers — a racemic mixture.
2-Methyl-1-propanolIsobutanol (IUPAC nomenclature: 2-methylpropan-1-ol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2OH. This colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic smell is mainly used as a solvent. Its isomers include n-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol, all of which are important industrially.
3-Methyl-1-butanolIsoamyl alcohol (also known as isopentyl alcohol) is a clear, colorless alcohol with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH. It is one of several isomers of amyl alcohol. It is a main ingredient in the production of banana oil, an ester found in nature and also produced as a flavouring in industry. It's also the main ingredient of Kovac's reagent, used for the bacterial diagnostic indole test. It is also used as an antifoaming agent in the Chloroform:Isomyl Alcohol reagent. Isoamyl alcohol is used in a Phenol–chloroform extraction mixed with the chloroform to further inhibit RNase activity and prevent solubility of RNAs with long tracts of poly-adenine. It is one of the components of the aroma of Tuber melanosporum, the black truffle. It has been identified as a chemical in the pheromone used by hornets to attract other members of the hive to attack
AcetoneAcetone (systematically named propan-2-one) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO. It is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, and is the simplestketone. Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically for cleaning purposes in the laboratory. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A. It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner. Acetone is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts. Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause reproductive problems. Pregnant women, nursing mothers and children have higher levels of acetone. Ketogenic diets that increase acetone in the body are used to counter epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from recalcitrant refractory epilepsy.
Butyl acetaten-Butyl acetate, also known as butyl ethanoate, is an organic compound commonly used as a solvent in the production of lacquers and other products. It is a colorless flammable liquid. Butyl acetate is found in many types of fruit, where along with other chemicals it imparts characteristic flavors and has a sweet smell of banana or apple. It is used as a synthetic fruit flavoring in foods such as candy, ice cream, cheeses, and baked goods. The other three isomers of butyl acetate are: isobutyl acetate, tert-butyl acetate, and sec-butyl acetate.
EtherEthers /ˈiːθər/ are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R–O–R'.[1] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as "ether" (CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3). Ethers are common in organic chemistry and pervasive in biochemistry, as they are common linkages in carbohydrates and lignin.
Ethyl formateEthyl formate is an ester formed when ethanol (an alcohol) reacts with formic acid (a carboxylic acid). It is also known as ethyl methanoate because formic acid is also known as methanoic acid. Ethyl formate has the characteristic smell of rum and is also partially responsible for the flavor of raspberries. Ethyl methanoate is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. According to the U.S Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), ethyl formate can irritate eyes, skin, mucous membranes, and the respiratory system of humans and other animals; it is also a central nervous system depressant. In industry, it is used as a solvent for cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, oils, and greases. It can be used as a substitute for acetone; workers may also be exposed to it under the following circumstances:during spray, brush, or dip applications of lacquers, during the manufacture of safety glass when fumigating tobacco, cereals, and dried fruits (as an alternative to methyl bromide under the U.S. Department of Agriculture quarantine system.
Isopropyl acetateIsopropyl acetate is an ester, an organic compound which is the product of esterification of acetic acid and isopropanol. It is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic fruity odor. Isopropyl acetate is a solvent with a wide variety of manufacturing uses that is miscible with most other organic solvents, and moderately soluble in water. It is used as a solvent for cellulose, plastics, oil and fats. It is a component of some printing inks and perfumes.Isopropyl acetate decomposes slowly on contact with steel in the presence of air, producing acetic acid and isopropanol. It reacts violently with oxidizing materials and it attacks many plastics.Isopropyl acetate is quite flammable in both its liquid and vapor forms, and it may be harmful if swallowed or inhaled. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit of 250 ppm (950 mg/m3) over an eight hour time-weighted average for workers handling isopropyl acetate.
Methyl acetateMethyl acetate, also known as MeOAc, acetic acid methyl ester or methyl ethanoate, is a carboxylate ester with the formula CH3COOCH3. It is a flammable liquid with a characteristically pleasant smell reminiscent of some glues and nail polish removers. Methyl acetate is occasionally used as a solvent, being weakly polar andlipophilic, but its close relative ethyl acetate is a more common solvent being less toxic and less soluble in water. Methyl acetate has a solubility of 25% in water at room temperature. At elevated temperature its solubility in water is much higher. Methyl acetate is not stable in the presence of strong aqueous bases or aqueous acids. Methyl acetate is not considered as a VOC.
n-PentanePentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12 — that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms. The term may refer to any of three structural isomers, or to a mixture of them: in the IUPAC nomenclature, however, pentane means exclusively the n-pentane isomer; the other two being called isopentane (methylbutane) andneopentane (dimethylpropane). Cyclopentane is not an isomer of pentane. Pentanes are components of some fuels and are employed as specialty solvents in the laboratory. Their properties are very similar to those of butanes and hexanes.
Tert-Butyl methyl etherMethyl tert-butyl ether (also known as MTBE, tert-butyl methyl ether, tertiary butyl methyl ether and tBME) is an organic compound with molecular formula (CH3)3COCH3. MTBE is a volatile, flammable, and colorless liquid that is sparingly soluble in water. It has a minty odor vaguely reminiscent of diethyl ether, leading to unpleasant taste and odor in water. MTBE is a gasoline additive, used as an oxygenate to raise the octane number. Its use is controversial in the US and declining in use in part because of its occurrence in groundwater and legislation favoring ethanol. However, worldwide production of MTBE has been constant at about 18 million tons/y (2005) owing to growth in Asian markets which are less subject to ethanol subsidies.