April 13, 2015 - 04:06 PM PDT
a-Pineneα-Pinene is an organic compound of the terpene class, one of two isomers of pinene.[1] It is an alkene and it contains a reactive four-membered ring. It is found in the oils of many species of many coniferous trees, notably the pine. It is also found in the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis).[2] Both enantiomers are known in nature; (1S,5S)- or (−)-α-pinene is more common in European pines, whereas the (1R,5R)- or (+)-α-isomer is more common in North America. The racemic mixture is present in some oils such as eucalyptus oil and orange peel oil.
CampheneCamphene is a bicyclic monoterpene. It is nearly insoluble in water, but very soluble in common organic solvents. It volatilizes readily at room temperature and has a pungent smell. It is a minor constituent of many essential oils such asturpentine, cypress oil, camphor oil, citronella oil, neroli, ginger oil, and valerian. It is produced industrially by catalytic isomerization of the more common alpha-pinene. Camphene is used in the preparation of fragrances and as a food additive for flavoring. Its mid-19th century use as a fuel for lamps was limited by its explosiveness.
MyrceneMyrcene, or β-myrcene, is an olefinic natural organic compound. It is classified as a hydrocarbon, more precisely as amonoterpene. Terpenes are dimers of isoprene, and myrcene is one of the most important. It is a component of theessential oil of several plants including bay, cannabis, ylang-ylang, wild thyme, parsley,[3] and hops.[4][5] It is produced mainly semi-synthetically from myrcia, from which it gets its name. It is a key intermediate in the production of several fragrances. α-Myrcene is the name for the structural isomer 2-methyl-6-methylene-1,7-octadiene, which is not found in nature and is little used.[6]
b-Pinenebeta-pinene (β-pinene) is a monoterpene, an organic compound found in plants. It is one of the two isomers ofpinene, the other being α-pinene. It is colorless liquid soluble in alcohol, but not water. It has a woody-green pine-likesmell. This is one of the most abundant compounds released by forest trees.[1] If oxidized in air, the allylic products of the pinocarveol and myrtenol family prevail.[2]
3-CareneCarene, or delta-3-carene, is a bicyclic monoterpene which occurs naturally as a constituent of turpentine,[1] with a content as high as 42% depending on the source. Carene has a sweet and pungent odor. It is not soluble in water, but miscible with fats and oils.
a-Terpinene The terpinenes are a group of isomeric hydrocarbons that are classified as terpenes. They each have the same molecular formula and carbon framework, but they differ in the position of carbon-carbon double bonds. α-Terpinene has been isolated from cardamom and marjoram oils, and from other natural sources. β-Terpinene has no known natural source, but has been prepared synthetically from sabinene. γ-Terpinene and δ-terpinene (also known as terpinolene) are natural and have been isolated from a variety of plant sources.
Ocimene-1Ocimenes are a group of isomeric hydrocarbons. The ocimenes are monoterpenes found within a variety of plants and fruits. α-Ocimene and the two β-ocimenes differ in the position of the isolated double bond: it is terminal in the alpha isomer. α-Ocimene is cis-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. β-Ocimene is trans-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene. β-Ocimene exists in two stereoisomeric forms, cis and trans, with respect to the central double bond. The ocimenes are often found naturally as mixtures of the various forms. The mixture, as well as the pure compounds, are oils with a pleasant odor. They are used in perfumery. Like the related acyclic terpene myrcene, ocimenes are unstable in air.[2] Like other terpenes, the ocimenes are nearly insoluble in water, but soluble in common organic solvents.
LimoneneLimonene is a colourless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic terpene. The more common d-isomer possesses a strong smell of oranges.[1] It is used in chemical synthesis as a precursor to carvone and as a renewables-based solvent in cleaning products. Limonene takes its name from the lemon, as the rind of the lemon, like other citrus fruits, contains considerable amounts of this compound, which contributes to their odor. Limonene is a chiral molecule, and biological sources produce one enantiomer: the principal industrial source, citrus fruit, contains d-limonene ((+)-limonene), which is the (R)-enantiomer (CAS number 5989-27-5, EINECS number 227-813-5). Racemic limonene is known as dipentene.[2] d-Limonene is obtained commercially from citrus fruits through two primary methods: centrifugal separation or steam distillation.  It is also in use as an alternative medicine, due to its observed ability to reduce heartburn and gastric acid reflux.
p-Cymenep-Cymene is a naturally occurring aromatic organic compound. It is classified as an alkylbenzene related to amonoterpene. Its structure consists of a benzene ring para-substituted with a methyl group and an isopropyl group. There are two less common geometric isomers. o-Cymene, in which the alkyl groups are ortho-substituted, and m-cymene, in which they are meta-substituted. p-Cymene is the only natural isomer. All three isomers form the group ofcymenes. p-Cymene is insoluble in water, but miscible with ethanol and diethyl ether. It is a constituent of a number of essential oils, most commonly the oil of cumin and thyme. Significant amounts are formed in sulfite pulping process from the wood terpenes. p-Cymene is a common ligand for ruthenium. The parent compound is [(η6-cymene)RuCl2]2. This half-sandwich compound is prepared by the reaction of ruthenium trichloride with the terpene α-phellandrene. The osmium complex is also known.
EucalyptolEucalyptol is a natural organic compound that is a colorless liquid. It is a cyclic ether and a monoterpenoid. Eucalyptol is also known by a variety of synonyms: 1,8-cineol, 1,8-cineole, cajeputol, 1,8-epoxy-p-menthane, 1,8-oxido-p-menthane, eucalyptol, eucalyptole, 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2,2,2]octane, cineol, cineole. In 1870, F.S. Cloez identified and ascribed the name eucalyptol to the dominant portion of Eucalyptus globulus oil.[1]Eucalyptus oil, the generic collective name for oils from the Eucalyptus genus, should not be confused with thechemical compound eucalyptol.
g-TerpineneThe terpinenes are a group of isomeric hydrocarbons that are classified as terpenes. They each have the same molecular formula and carbon framework, but they differ in the position of carbon-carbon double bonds. α-Terpinene has been isolated from cardamom and marjoram oils, and from other natural sources. β-Terpinene has no known natural source, but has been prepared synthetically from sabinene. γ-Terpinene and δ-terpinene (also known as terpinolene) are natural and have been isolated from a variety of plant sources.
TerpenoleneTerpineolene is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol that has been isolated from a variety of sources such as cajuput oil, pine oil, and petitgrain oil.[1] There are four isomers, alpha-, beta-, gamma-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol.beta- and gamma-terpineol differ only by the location of the double bond. Terpineol is usually a mixture of these isomers with alpha-terpineol as the major constituent. Terpineols: alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and the 4-terpineol isomer. Terpineol has a pleasant odor similar to lilac and is a common ingredient in perfumes, cosmetics, and flavors. α-Terpineol is one of the two most abundant aroma constituents of lapsang souchong tea; the α-terpineol originates in the pine smoke used to dry the tea.[2] (+)-α-Terpineol is a chemical constituent of scullcap.
LinaloolLinalool /lɪˈnælɵ.ɒl/ is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol chemical found in many flowers and spice plants with many commercial applications, the majority of which are based on its pleasant scent (floral, with a touch of spiciness). It has other names such as β-linalool, linalyl alcohol, linaloyl oxide, p-linalool, allo-ocimenol, and 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol.
IsopulegolIsopulegol is a colorless, clear liquid with a smell of mint. Citronellal is converted by treatment with acid into the monocyclic monoterpene alcohol isopulegol, from which a mixture of stereoisomeric menthols is produced by catalytic hydrogenation. The process is used commercially to supplement the natural sources of menthol (oil of peppermint), widely used as a flavouring and in medicinal preparations.
GeraniolGeraniol is a monoterpenoid and an alcohol. It is the primary part of rose oil, palmarosa oil, and citronella oil (Java type). It also occurs in small quantities in geranium, lemon, and many other essential oils. It appears as a clear to pale-yellow oil that is insoluble in water, but soluble in most common organic solvents. It has a rose-like scent and is commonly used in perfumes. It is used in flavors such as peach, raspberry, grapefruit, red apple, plum, lime, orange, lemon, watermelon, pineapple, and blueberry.
b-CaryophylleneCaryophyllene /ˌkæri.ɵfɪˈliːn/, or (−)-β-caryophyllene, is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of manyessential oils, especially clove oil, the oil from the stems and flowers of Syzygium aromaticum (cloves),[1] the essential oil of hemp Cannabis sativa,[2] rosemary Rosmarinus oficinalis,[3] and hops.[4] It is usually found as a mixture with isocaryophyllene (the cis double bond isomer) and α-humulene (obsolete name: α-caryophyllene), a ring-opened isomer. Caryophyllene is notable for having a cyclobutane ring, a rarity in nature. Caryophyllene is one of the chemical compounds that contributes to the spiciness of black pepper. In a study conducted by Jürg Gertsch et al. from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), beta-caryophyllene was shown to be selective agonist of cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2) and to exert significant cannabimimeticantiinflammatory effects in mice.[2] Antinociceptive,[5] neuroprotective,[6] anxiolytic and antidepressant [7] and anti-alcoholism [8] activity have been uncovered. Because the widespread plant natural product beta-caryophyllene is an FDA approved food additive and ingested daily with food it is the first dietary cannabinoid. Whether this compound is able to modulate inflammatory processes in humans via the endocannabinoid system is yet unknown. Beta-caryophyllene does not bind to the centrally expressed cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) and therefore does not exert psychomimetic effects. The first total synthesis of caryophyllene in 1964 by E.J. Corey was considered one of the classic demonstrations of the possibilities of synthetic organic chemistry at the time.[9] Caryophyllene oxide is the component responsible for cannabis identification by drug-sniffing dogs[10][11]
HumuleneHumulene, also known as α-humulene or α-caryophyllene, is a naturally occurring monocyclic sesquiterpene (C15H24), which is an 11-membered ring,consisting of 3 isoprene units containing three nonconjugated C═C double bonds, two of them being triply substituted and one being doubly substitutedterpenoid. It was first found in the essential oils ofHumulus lupulus (hops), from which it derives its name.[2] Humulene is an isomer of β-caryophyllene, and the two are often found together as a mixture in many aromatic plants (see "Occurrence" below).
Nerolidol-1Nerolidol, also known as peruviol, is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene found in the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers.[1] There are two isomers of nerolidol, cis and trans, which differ in the geometry about the central double bond. Nerolidol is present in neroli, ginger, jasmine, lavender, tea tree, Cannabis sativa, and lemon grass. The aroma of nerolidol is woody and reminiscent of fresh bark. It is used as a flavoring agent and in perfumery. It is also currently under testing as a skin penetration enhancer for the transdermal delivery of therapeutic drugs.[2]
GuaiolGuaiol or champacol is an organic compound, a sesquiterpenoid alcohol found in several plants, especially in the oil of guaiacum and cypress pine.[1] It is a crystalline solid that melts at 92 °C.[2]
Caryophyllene OxideCaryophyllene oxide, an oxygenated terpenoid, well known as preservative in food, drugs and cosmetics, has been tested in vitro as an antifungal against dermatophytes. Its antifungal activity has been compared to ciclopiroxolamine and sulconazole, commonly used in onychomycosis treatment and chosen because of their very different chemical structures. 
a-bisabololBisabolol, or more formally α-(−)-bisabolol or also known as levomenol,[1] is a natural monocyclic sesquiterpenealcohol. It is a colorless viscous oil that is the primary constituent of the essential oil from German chamomile(Matricaria recutita) and Myoporum crassifolium.[2] It is almost insoluble in water and glycerin, but very soluble inethanol. The enantiomer, α-(+)-bisabolol, is also found naturally but is rare. Synthetic bisabolol is usually a racemicmixture of the two, α-(±)-bisabolol. Bisabolol has a weak sweet floral aroma and is used in various fragrances. It has also been used for hundreds of years in cosmetics because of its perceived skin healing properties. Bisabolol is known to have anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Bisabolol is also demonstrated to enhance the percutaneous absorption of certain molecules.[3] α-bisabolol has recently been shown to induce apoptosis in models of leukemia.[4]A structurally related compound known as β-bisabolol (CAS registry number [15352-77-9]) differs only in the position of the tertiary alcohol functional group.